Back to Dr. Koch's Home Page

Geisha Tattoo Design    Dragon and Sword Tattoo Design        Japanese Dragon Tattoo Design    Phoenix Tattoo Design

                                  The Body Art Team

We are a small group of scholars that, in the Fall of 1999, began gathering data regarding college students' attitudes toward, and experiences with
tattoos and body piercing.  Our work is interdisciplinary.  We are published in journals for sociologists, psychologists, nurses, and physicians.  
We have had many requests from all over the world that our work be made available, hence, this web page.  Pass the word! 

Our latest body of work:  Religious Tattoos 

News reports from our work, "Gender, Self Esteem, and Tattoos ... "
     Yahoo Health  Texas Tech Today  


In addition to many local and regional media, we've been quoted/cited:   The Economist    Esquire     Newsweek      MSNBC    Chicago Tribune 
                                                Yahoo Health 
Washington Post,  Boston Globe   National Geographic   Time Magazine    Cosmopolitan  

If you have questions about our work, or would like information about our team:

    Myrna Armstrong               Kevin Dougherty              Jerry Koch               Al Roberts                    Donna Owen                    
   Email Dr. Armstrong           Email Dr. Dougherty         Email Dr. Koch        Email Dr. Roberts         Email Dr. Owen  

Our Published Work:

38.  Koch, Jerome, and Kevin Dougherty.  Forthcoming.  “The Religious Tattoo:  Much More Than Skin Deep.”  Religion, Attire, and Adornment in North America.
New York:  Columbia University Press.  Marie Dallam and Ben Zeller, editors.  Read accepted draft 

37.  Maloney, Patricia A., and Jerome R. Koch.  2020. "The College Student's Religious Tattoo:  Respect, Reverence, Remembrance."  Socioogical Focus 53(1): 53-66. Read article

36.  Dougherty, Kevin D., and Jerome R. Koch.  2019. "Religious Tattoos at One Christian University."  Visual StudiesRead article

35.  Koch, Jerome R., Myrna L. Armstrong, Christian Slavin, Alden E. Roberts, and Donna C. Owen.  2018. “Getting – and Getting Rid of – Tattoos.”  2018.  International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 54(2): 137-152.   Read Article

34.  Koch, Jerome R., Alden E. Roberts, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Donna C. Owen.  2015  "Tattoos, Gender, and Well-Being Among American College Students". The Social Science Journal 52(4): 536-541   Read Article    
To see a news report video on this resarch click for:  Apple Devices     Windows Media     News Reports from Yahoo HealthMic.com,  and   How Stuff Works

33.  Nelius, Thomas, Myrna L. Armstrong, Cathy Young, Alden E. Roberts, LaMicha Hogan, and Katherine Rinard.  2014.  "Prevalence and Implications of Genital tattoos:  A Site Not Forgotten."  British Journal of Medical Practitioners  7(4): 732ff.   Read article

32.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Jane Tustin, Donna C. Owen, Jerome R. Koch, and Alden E. Roberts.  2014.   “Body Art Education:  The Earlier the Better.”  Journal of School Nursing 30(1): 12-18.   Read Article   

31.  Owen, Donna C., Myrna L. Armstrong, Jerome R. Koch, and Alden E. Roberts.  2013.  "College Students With Body Art: Well Being Or Higher Risk Behavior?" Journal of Psychosocial Nursing 51(10) 20-28.  Read Article 

30.  Carlson, Valeria P., Everett J. Lehman, and Myrna L. Armstrong.  2012.  "Tattooing Regulations in U.S. States, 2011."  Journal of Environmental Health 75(3):30-37.  Read Article

29.  Koch, Jerome R., and Alden E. Roberts.  2012.  "The Protestant Ethic and the Religious Tattoo."  The Social Science Journal 49(2): 210-213.    Read Article

28.  Nelius, Thomas, Myrna L. Armstrong, Katherine Rinard, Cathy Young, LaMicha Hogan, and Elayne Angel.  2011.  "Genital Piercings:  Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications for Urologists."  Urology 78:  998-1008.   Read Article       Editorial Comment and Authors' Response

27.  Hogan, LaMicha, Cathy Young, Wrennah Gabbert, and Myrna L. Armstrong.  2011.  “Unique predisposing factors for male urinary tract infections.”  Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 23: 525-529. Read Article

26.  Rinard, Katherine, Thomas Nelius, LaMicha Hogan, Cathy Young, Alden Roberts, and Myrna Armstrong.  2010.  "Cross-Sectional Study Examining Four Types of Male Penile and Unrethral 'Play.'"  Urology 76: 1326-1333.   Read Article

25.  Hogan, LaMicha, Katherine Rinard, Cathy Young, Alden E. Roberts, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Thomas Nelius.  2010.  "A Cross-Sectional Study of Men With Genital Piercings."  British Journal of Medical Practitioners Volume 3, Number 2.  Read Article

24.  Young, Cathy, Myrna L. Armstrong, Alden E. Roberts, Inola Mello, and Elayne Angel.  2010.  "A triad of evidence for the care of women with genital piercings."  Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 22(2): 70-80.  Read Article

23.  Koch, Jerome R., Alden E. Roberts, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Donna C. Owen. 2010. "Body Art, Deviance, and American College Students." Social Science Journal  47(1): 151-161.    Read Article      Watch a Video news report of this stuudy.

22.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Jana C. Saunders, and Alden E. Roberts.  2009.  "Older Women and Cosmetic Tattooing Experiences."  Journal of Women and Aging 21:  186-197.  Read Article

21.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Alden E Roberts, Jana C. Saunders, Donna C. Owen, and Jerome R. Koch. 2009.  "Need for uniqueness in older women:  An exploratory look."     International Journal of Older People Nursing 4: 254-262.   Read Article  

20.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Scott DeBoer, and Frank Cetta.  2008.  "Infective Endocarditis After Body Art:  A Review of the Literature and Concerns."  Journal of Adolescent Health 43: 217-225.  Read Article

19.  Young, Cathy, and Myrna L. Armstrong.  2008.  "What Nurses Need to Know When Caring for Women with Genital Piercings."  2008.  AWHONN Lifelines.  12:130-138.  Read Article

18.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Alden E. Roberts, Jerome R. Koch, Jana C. Saunders, Donna C. Owen, and R. Rox Anderson. 2008. "Motivation for Contemporary Tattoo Removal: A Shift in Identity." Archives of Dermatology 144 (7): 879-884.    Read Article

17.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Jerome R. Koch, Jana C. Saunders, Alden E. Roberts, and Donna C. Owen. 2007. "The Hole Picture: Risks, Decision Making, Purpose, Regulations, and the Future of Body Piercing." Clinics in Dermatology. 25(4): 398-406.   Read Article

16.  Koch, Jerome R., Alden E. Roberts, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Donna C. Owen. 2007.  "Frequencies and relations of body piercing and sexual activity in college students." Psychological Reports.  101: 159-162.   Read Article

15.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Alden E. Roberts, Jerome R. Koch, Jana C. Saunders, and Donna C. Owen. 2007. "Investigating the Removal of Body Piercings." Clinical Nursing Research 16: 103-118.   Read Article

14.  Roberts, Alden E., Jerome R. Koch, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Donna C. Owen.  2006.  "Correlates of Tattoos and Reference Groups."  Psychological Reports.  99:  933-934    Read Article  

13.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Carol Caliendo, and Alden E. Roberts.  2006.  "Pregnancy, Lactation, and Intimate Body Piercings."  AHWONN Lifelines.  10(3): 212-217.  (Winner of the 2007 AHWONN Lifelines Writers Award).     Read Article

12.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Carol Caliendo, and Alden E. Roberts.  2006.  "Genital Piercings:  What is known and what people with genital piercings tell us."  Urologic Nursing.  26(3): 173-180.  Read Article

11.  Koch, Jerome R., Alden E. Roberts, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Donna C. Owen.  2005.  "College students, tattoos, and sexual activity."  Psychological Reports. 97: 887-890.   Read Article

10.  Armstrong, Myrna L.  2005.  "Tattooing, Body Piercing, and Permanent Cosmetics:  A Historical and Current View of State Regulations, with Continuing Concerns."  Journal of Environmental Health 8:38-43.  Read Article

9.  Koch, Jerome R., Alden E. Roberts, Julie Harms Cannon, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Donna C. Owen.  2005.    “College Students, Tattooing, and the Health Belief Model."  Sociological Spectrum 25: 79-102.  Read article

8.  Caliendo, Carol, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Alden E. Roberts.  2005.  “Self-reported Characteristics of Women and Men with Intimate Body Piercings.”  Journal of Advanced Nursing 49(5): 474-484.   Read Article

7.  Saunders, Jana C, and Myrna L Armstrong.  2005.  "Experiences and Influences of Women With Cosmetic Tattooing."  Dermatology Nursing 17(1): 23-31.    Read Article

6.  Koch, Jerome R., Alden E. Roberts, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Donna C. Owen. 2004. “Religious Belief and Practice in Attitudes Toward Individuals With Body Piercing." Psychological Reports 95: 583-586Read article 

5.  Koch, Jerome R., Alden E. Roberts, Myrna L. Armstrong, and Donna C. Owen.  2004.   “Correlations of religious belief and practice on college students’ tattoo-related behavior.”   Psychological Reports 94: 425-430   Read article

4.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Alden E. Roberts, Donna C. Owen, and Jerome R. Koch. 2004. “Toward Building a Composite of College Student Influences With Body Art."  Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 27: 273-291.    Read Article.

3.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Donna C. Owen, Alden E. Roberts, and Jerome R. Koch. 2004. “Contemporary College Students and Body Piercing.” Journal of Adolescent Health 35: 58-61.  Read Article

2.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Donna C. Owen, Alden E. Roberts, and Jerome R. Koch. 2002. “College Students and Tattoos: The Influence of Image, Identity, Family, and Friends.” The Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 40(10): 20-29.   Read Article

1.  Armstrong, Myrna L., Donna C. Owen, Alden E. Roberts, and Jerome R. Koch. 2002.. “College Tattoos: More Than Skin Deep.” Dermatology Nursing 14(5): 317-323. (Winner of the 2002 Annual Dermatology Nurses Writers Award).  Read Article

About us:

Myrna L. Armstrong, RN, Ed.D., FAAN  is Professor Emerita, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Anita Thigpen Perry School of Nursing.  Her research and published work with tattooing and body piercing have spanned almost 25 years; other research interests include web-based education and the impact of  Need for Uniqueness regarding health care decisions.

Kevin D. Dougherty, Ph.D. is Associate Professor of Sociology at Baylor University.  His research explores religious affiliation, religious participation, and the impact of religion on other realms of social life.  He brings his expertise in the sociology of religion to bear on our examination of religious tattoos. He has also been instrumental in recruiting research subjects as well as data analysis. 

Jerome R. Koch, M.Div., Ph.D. is Professor of Sociology at Texas Tech University. His research interests are related to the sociology of religion, medicine, and social deviance. Much of his published work involves studying the social correlates of body modification, the relationship between religion and health, and the outreach work of religious organizations.
donna.gif Donna C. Owen, RN, Ph.D., AOCN  is Professor of Nursing at the Anita Thigpen Perry School of Nursing, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.  Her research interests are related to health risks, communication, dementia, and geriatric nursing.   Her research approach includes both qualitative and quantitative research methods and includes exploration of body art and health risks.    
al.gif Alden E. Roberts, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Texas Tech University.  His research interests are statistics and methodology, social psychology, and body modification.  He has also published works on mental health, refugees and international migration, and Native Americans.